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It consists of several chains of hills, most famous being the Trinity Hills.
The rocks consist of sandstones, shales, siltstones and clays formed in the Miocene and uplifted in the Pleistocene.
Both Trinidad and Tobago were originally settled by Amerindians of South American origin.
Trinidad was first settled by pre-agricultural Archaic people at least 7,000 years ago, making it the earliest settled part of the Caribbean.
The true total number of micro-organism species must be much higher.
Thanks to a recently published checklist, plant diversity in Trinidad and Tobago is well documented with about 3,300 species (59 endemic) recorded.
During the same period, the island of Tobago changed hands among Spanish, British, French, Dutch and Courlander colonizers more times than any other island in the Caribbean.
At the closest point, Trinidad is just 11 kilometres (6.8 mi) from Venezuelan territory.
Covering an area of 5,128 km the country consists of the two main islands, Trinidad and Tobago, and numerous smaller landforms, including Chacachacare, Monos, Huevos, Gaspar Grande (or Gasparee), Little Tobago, and St. Trinidad is 4,768 km (120 sq mi), or 5.8% of the country's area, is 41 km (25 mi) long and 12 km (7.5 mi) at its greatest width.
Trinidad and Tobago lie on the continental shelf of South America, and are thus geologically considered to lie entirely in South America.
The terrain of the islands is a mixture of mountains and plains.
The highest point in the country is found on the Northern Range at El Cerro del Aripo, which is 940 metres (3,080 ft) above sea level.